Role of Steering Inequality in Quantum Key Distribution Protocol

Kaushiki Mukherjee, Tapaswini Patro, Nirman Ganguly


Violation of Bell's inequality has been the mainspring for secure key generation in an entanglement assisted Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) protocol. Various contributions have relied on the violation of Bell inequalities to build an appropriate QKD protocol. Residing between Bell nonlocality and entanglement, there exists a hybrid trait of correlations, namely correlations exhibited through the violation of steering inequalities. However, such correlations have not been put to use in QKD protocols as much as their stronger counterpart, the Bell violations. In the present work, we show that the violations of the Cavalcanti–Jones–Wiseman–Reid (CJWR) steering inequalities can act as key ingredients in an entanglement assisted QKD protocol. We work with arbitrary two-qubit entangled states, and characterize them by their utility in such protocols. The characterization is based on the quantum bit error rate and violation of the CJWR inequality. Furthermore, we show that subsequent applications of local filtering operations on initially entangled states exhibiting no violation, lead to violations necessary for the successful implementation of the protocol. An additional vindication of our protocol is provided by the use of absolutely Bell–Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt (Bell–CHSH) local states, states which remain Bell–CHSH local even under global unitary operations.

Quanta 2023; 12: 1–21.

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ISSN: 1314-7374