Dual Instruments and Sequential Products of Observables

Stan Gudder


We first show that every operation possesses an unique dual operation and measures an unique effect. If a and b are effects and J is an operation that measures a, we define the sequential product of a then b relative to J. Properties of the sequential product are derived and are illustrated in terms of Lüders and Holevo operations. We next extend this work to the theory of instruments and observables. We also define the concept of an instrument (observable) conditioned by another instrument (observable). Identity, state-constant and repeatable instruments are considered. Sequential products of finite observables relative to Lüders and Holevo instruments are studied.

Quanta 2022; 11: 15–27.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.12743/quanta.v11i1.197

ISSN: 1314-7374